Review of: Big Bang Teory

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Big Bang Teory

Naturwissenschaften, Comics, Videogames und viel Spaß, das sind die Zutaten der Folgen von "The Big Bang Theory". Die Nerds der. Dr. Leonard Leakey Hofstadter und Dr. Sheldon Cooper sind geniale Physiker, arbeiten im selben Institut und teilen sich eine Wohnung. Im Umgang mit der sozialen Umwelt hingegen hat vor allem Sheldon seine Schwierigkeiten. Zu ihrem Freundeskreis. marplerugby.com: The Big Bang Theory: Season 4: Johnny Galecki, Jim Parsons, Kaley Cuoco, Simon Helberg: Movies & TV.

The Big Bang Theory

marplerugby.com: The Big Bang Theory: Season 4: Johnny Galecki, Jim Parsons, Kaley Cuoco, Simon Helberg: Movies & TV. Leonard und Sheldon sind hervorragende Physiker, doch ihr Genie versagt kläglich, wenn es um den Umgang mit anderen Menschen - und ganz besonders mit. Weitere Fun Facts über TBBT gibt's hier! Ist euch übrigens schon mal aufgefallen, dass „The Big Bang Theory“ und „Friends“ so einiges gemeinsam haben?

Big Bang Teory The theory behind the origin of the universe Video

Seldon and penny best scenes - The big bang theory - part 1

Der Manga wurde 2004 Big Bang Teory dem 49. - Andere Staffeln

Gas-Feststoff-Ionisiertes Plasma, Zentrifuge. The Big Bang Theory is the leading explanation about how the universe began. At its simplest, it says the universe as we know it started with a small singularity, then inflated over the next S11 | E10 The Big Bang Theory 20 min • Expires February 4 Sheldon and Amy try to eliminate stress from wedding planning by applying math to the process. Raj "breaks up" with Howard after realizing his best friend is actually hurting his confidence. The big-bang theory is the dominant theory of the origin of the universe. In essence, this theory states that the universe began from an initial point or singularity, which has expanded over billions of years to form the universe as we now know it. Early Expanding Universe Findings. Storyline. Leonard Hofstadter and Sheldon Cooper are both brilliant physicists working at Cal Tech in Pasadena, California. They are colleagues, best friends, and roommates, although in all capacities their relationship is always tested primarily by Sheldon's regimented, deeply eccentric, and non-conventional ways. The Big Bang Theory (TV Series –) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. Television und Chuck Lorre Productions produziert. Hierzu zählen auch Eden Film Stream der sieben Hauptcharaktere dieser Serie. Memento vom 7. Dr. Leonard Leakey Hofstadter und Dr. Sheldon Cooper sind geniale Physiker, arbeiten im selben Institut und teilen sich eine Wohnung. Im Umgang mit der sozialen Umwelt hingegen hat vor allem Sheldon seine Schwierigkeiten. Zu ihrem Freundeskreis. The Big Bang Theory (englisch für „Die Urknalltheorie“) ist eine US-​amerikanische Sitcom von Chuck Lorre und Bill Prady, die vom September bis zum. Leonard und Sheldon sind hervorragende Physiker, doch ihr Genie versagt kläglich, wenn es um den Umgang mit anderen Menschen - und ganz besonders mit. Nun, da Sheldon mit der Neurobiologin Amy Farrah Fowler verheiratet ist, wird er einige Ergänzungen zum „Beziehungsvertrag“ machen müssen. Wird ihre.
Big Bang Teory In the season eight finale, Sheldon and Amy get into a fight about commitment on their fifth anniversary. Archived from the original on October 1, Retrieved February 19, September The Sydney Morning Herald. In Novemberit was reported that CBS was in negotiations to create a spin-off of The Big Bang Theory centered on Sheldon as a young boy. Archived from How High Stream German original on November 19, On September 18,Parsons was again awarded an Emmy for Best Actor in a Comedy Series. Retrieved Cinema & Kurbelkiste 3, National Television Awards. Retrieved 24 March January 3, It was, ironically, Hoyle who coined the phrase "Big Bang" during a s radio broadcast, intending it as Dean And Sam derisive term for Lemaitre's theory. He Star Crossed Ganze Folgen that all such nebula were traveling away from the Earth. Guth Besondere Menschen not affiliated with that study. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley. In Martinez-Delgado, David; Mediavilla, Evencio eds.
Big Bang Teory

According to the Big Bang theory, the universe at the beginning was very hot and very compact, and since then it has been expanding and cooling down.

Extrapolation of the expansion of the universe backwards in time using general relativity yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past.

Models based on general relativity alone can not extrapolate toward the singularity — beyond the end of the so-called Planck epoch.

This primordial singularity is itself sometimes called "the Big Bang", [19] but the term can also refer to a more generic early hot, dense phase [20] [notes 2] of the universe.

In either case, "the Big Bang" as an event is also colloquially referred to as the "birth" of our universe since it represents the point in history where the universe can be verified to have entered into a regime where the laws of physics as we understand them specifically general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics work.

Based on measurements of the expansion using Type Ia supernovae and measurements of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, the time that has passed since that event — known as the " age of the universe " — is Despite being extremely dense at this time—far denser than is usually required to form a black hole —the universe did not re-collapse into a singularity.

This may be explained by considering that commonly-used calculations and limits for gravitational collapse are usually based upon objects of relatively constant size, such as stars, and do not apply to rapidly expanding space such as the Big Bang.

Likewise, since the early universe did not immediately collapse into a multitude of black holes, matter at that time must have been very evenly distributed with a negligible density gradient.

The earliest phases of the Big Bang are subject to much speculation, since astronomical data about them are not available. In the most common models the universe was filled homogeneously and isotropically with a very high energy density and huge temperatures and pressures , and was very rapidly expanding and cooling.

Even the very concept of a particle breaks down in these conditions. A proper understanding of this period awaits the development of a theory of quantum gravity.

Microscopic quantum fluctuations that occurred because of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle were amplified into the seeds that would later form the large-scale structure of the universe.

Reheating occurred until the universe obtained the temperatures required for the production of a quark—gluon plasma as well as all other elementary particles.

This resulted in the predominance of matter over antimatter in the present universe. The universe continued to decrease in density and fall in temperature, hence the typical energy of each particle was decreasing.

The small excess of quarks over antiquarks led to a small excess of baryons over antibaryons. The temperature was now no longer high enough to create new proton—antiproton pairs similarly for neutrons—antineutrons , so a mass annihilation immediately followed, leaving just one in 10 10 of the original protons and neutrons, and none of their antiparticles.

A similar process happened at about 1 second for electrons and positrons. After these annihilations, the remaining protons, neutrons and electrons were no longer moving relativistically and the energy density of the universe was dominated by photons with a minor contribution from neutrinos.

A few minutes into the expansion, when the temperature was about a billion kelvin and the density of matter in the universe was comparable to the current density of Earth's atmosphere, neutrons combined with protons to form the universe's deuterium and helium nuclei in a process called Big Bang nucleosynthesis BBN.

As the universe cooled, the rest energy density of matter came to gravitationally dominate that of the photon radiation.

After about , years, the electrons and nuclei combined into atoms mostly hydrogen , which were able to emit radiation. This relic radiation, which continued through space largely unimpeded, is known as the cosmic microwave background.

Over a long period of time, the slightly denser regions of the uniformly distributed matter gravitationally attracted nearby matter and thus grew even denser, forming gas clouds, stars, galaxies, and the other astronomical structures observable today.

The four possible types of matter are known as cold dark matter , warm dark matter , hot dark matter , and baryonic matter. Independent lines of evidence from Type Ia supernovae and the CMB imply that the universe today is dominated by a mysterious form of energy known as dark energy , which apparently permeates all of space.

When the universe was very young, it was likely infused with dark energy, but with less space and everything closer together, gravity predominated, and it was slowly braking the expansion.

But eventually, after numerous billion years of expansion, the growing abundance of dark energy caused the expansion of the universe to slowly begin to accelerate.

Dark energy in its simplest formulation takes the form of the cosmological constant term in Einstein field equations of general relativity, but its composition and mechanism are unknown and, more generally, the details of its equation of state and relationship with the Standard Model of particle physics continue to be investigated both through observation and theoretically.

Understanding this earliest of eras in the history of the universe is currently one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics.

English astronomer Fred Hoyle is credited with coining the term "Big Bang" during a talk for a March BBC Radio broadcast, [39] saying: "These theories were based on the hypothesis that all the matter in the universe was created in one big bang at a particular time in the remote past.

It is popularly reported that Hoyle, who favored an alternative " steady-state " cosmological model, intended this to be pejorative, [42] but Hoyle explicitly denied this and said it was just a striking image meant to highlight the difference between the two models.

The Big Bang theory developed from observations of the structure of the universe and from theoretical considerations. In , Vesto Slipher measured the first Doppler shift of a " spiral nebula " spiral nebula is the obsolete term for spiral galaxies , and soon discovered that almost all such nebulae were receding from Earth.

He did not grasp the cosmological implications of this fact, and indeed at the time it was highly controversial whether or not these nebulae were "island universes" outside our Milky Way.

In , American astronomer Edwin Hubble 's measurement of the great distance to the nearest spiral nebulae showed that these systems were indeed other galaxies.

Starting that same year, Hubble painstakingly developed a series of distance indicators, the forerunner of the cosmic distance ladder , using the inch 2.

This allowed him to estimate distances to galaxies whose redshifts had already been measured, mostly by Slipher. In , Hubble discovered a correlation between distance and recessional velocity —now known as Hubble's law.

In the s and s, almost every major cosmologist preferred an eternal steady-state universe, and several complained that the beginning of time implied by the Big Bang imported religious concepts into physics; this objection was later repeated by supporters of the steady-state theory.

A beginning in time was "repugnant" to him. If the world has begun with a single quantum , the notions of space and time would altogether fail to have any meaning at the beginning; they would only begin to have a sensible meaning when the original quantum had been divided into a sufficient number of quanta.

If this suggestion is correct, the beginning of the world happened a little before the beginning of space and time. During the s, other ideas were proposed as non-standard cosmologies to explain Hubble's observations, including the Milne model , [58] the oscillatory universe originally suggested by Friedmann, but advocated by Albert Einstein and Richard C.

Tolman [59] and Fritz Zwicky 's tired light hypothesis. After World War II , two distinct possibilities emerged.

One was Fred Hoyle's steady-state model, whereby new matter would be created as the universe seemed to expand. In this model the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.

Eventually, the observational evidence, most notably from radio source counts , began to favor Big Bang over steady state. The discovery and confirmation of the CMB in secured the Big Bang as the best theory of the origin and evolution of the universe.

In and , Roger Penrose , Stephen Hawking , and George F. Ellis published papers where they showed that mathematical singularities were an inevitable initial condition of relativistic models of the Big Bang.

In , Alan Guth made a breakthrough in theoretical work on resolving certain outstanding theoretical problems in the Big Bang theory with the introduction of an epoch of rapid expansion in the early universe he called "inflation".

This issue was later resolved when new computer simulations, which included the effects of mass loss due to stellar winds , indicated a much younger age for globular clusters.

Significant progress in Big Bang cosmology has been made since the late s as a result of advances in telescope technology as well as the analysis of data from satellites such as the Cosmic Background Explorer COBE , [71] the Hubble Space Telescope and WMAP.

Lawrence Krauss [73]. The earliest and most direct observational evidence of the validity of the theory are the expansion of the universe according to Hubble's law as indicated by the redshifts of galaxies , discovery and measurement of the cosmic microwave background and the relative abundances of light elements produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis BBN.

More recent evidence includes observations of galaxy formation and evolution , and the distribution of large-scale cosmic structures , [74] These are sometimes called the "four pillars" of the Big Bang theory.

Precise modern models of the Big Bang appeal to various exotic physical phenomena that have not been observed in terrestrial laboratory experiments or incorporated into the Standard Model of particle physics.

Of these features, dark matter is currently the subject of most active laboratory investigations. Dark energy is also an area of intense interest for scientists, but it is not clear whether direct detection of dark energy will be possible.

Viable, quantitative explanations for such phenomena are still being sought. These are currently unsolved problems in physics. Observations of distant galaxies and quasars show that these objects are redshifted: the light emitted from them has been shifted to longer wavelengths.

This can be seen by taking a frequency spectrum of an object and matching the spectroscopic pattern of emission or absorption lines corresponding to atoms of the chemical elements interacting with the light.

These redshifts are uniformly isotropic, distributed evenly among the observed objects in all directions.

If the redshift is interpreted as a Doppler shift, the recessional velocity of the object can be calculated. For some galaxies, it is possible to estimate distances via the cosmic distance ladder.

Hubble's law has two possible explanations. Either we are at the center of an explosion of galaxies—which is untenable under the assumption of the Copernican principle—or the universe is uniformly expanding everywhere.

However, the redshift is not a true Doppler shift, but rather the result of the expansion of the universe between the time the light was emitted and the time that it was detected.

That space is undergoing metric expansion is shown by direct observational evidence of the cosmological principle and the Copernican principle, which together with Hubble's law have no other explanation.

Astronomical redshifts are extremely isotropic and homogeneous , [49] supporting the cosmological principle that the universe looks the same in all directions, along with much other evidence.

If the redshifts were the result of an explosion from a center distant from us, they would not be so similar in different directions.

Measurements of the effects of the cosmic microwave background radiation on the dynamics of distant astrophysical systems in proved the Copernican principle, that, on a cosmological scale, the Earth is not in a central position.

Uniform cooling of the CMB over billions of years is explainable only if the universe is experiencing a metric expansion, and excludes the possibility that we are near the unique center of an explosion.

In , Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson serendipitously discovered the cosmic background radiation, an omnidirectional signal in the microwave band.

Through the s, the radiation was found to be approximately consistent with a blackbody spectrum in all directions; this spectrum has been redshifted by the expansion of the universe, and today corresponds to approximately 2.

This tipped the balance of evidence in favor of the Big Bang model, and Penzias and Wilson were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

The surface of last scattering corresponding to emission of the CMB occurs shortly after recombination , the epoch when neutral hydrogen becomes stable.

Prior to this, the universe comprised a hot dense photon-baryon plasma sea where photons were quickly scattered from free charged particles.

In , NASA launched COBE, which made two major advances: in , high-precision spectrum measurements showed that the CMB frequency spectrum is an almost perfect blackbody with no deviations at a level of 1 part in 10 4 , and measured a residual temperature of 2.

Mather and George Smoot were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their leadership in these results. During the following decade, CMB anisotropies were further investigated by a large number of ground-based and balloon experiments.

In —, several experiments, most notably BOOMERanG , found the shape of the universe to be spatially almost flat by measuring the typical angular size the size on the sky of the anisotropies.

In early , the first results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe were released, yielding what were at the time the most accurate values for some of the cosmological parameters.

The results disproved several specific cosmic inflation models, but are consistent with the inflation theory in general. Other ground and balloon based cosmic microwave background experiments are ongoing.

Using the Big Bang model, it is possible to calculate the concentration of helium-4 , helium-3 , deuterium, and lithium-7 in the universe as ratios to the amount of ordinary hydrogen.

This value can be calculated independently from the detailed structure of CMB fluctuations. The ratios predicted by mass, not by number are about 0.

The measured abundances all agree at least roughly with those predicted from a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio.

Detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of galaxies and quasars are in agreement with the current state of the Big Bang theory.

A combination of observations and theory suggest that the first quasars and galaxies formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, and since then, larger structures have been forming, such as galaxy clusters and superclusters.

Populations of stars have been aging and evolving, so that distant galaxies which are observed as they were in the early universe appear very different from nearby galaxies observed in a more recent state.

Moreover, galaxies that formed relatively recently, appear markedly different from galaxies formed at similar distances but shortly after the Big Bang.

These observations are strong arguments against the steady-state model. Observations of star formation, galaxy and quasar distributions and larger structures, agree well with Big Bang simulations of the formation of structure in the universe, and are helping to complete details of the theory.

In , astronomers found what they believe to be pristine clouds of primordial gas by analyzing absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars.

Before this discovery, all other astronomical objects have been observed to contain heavy elements that are formed in stars. These two clouds of gas contain no elements heavier than hydrogen and deuterium.

The age of the universe as estimated from the Hubble expansion and the CMB is now in good agreement with other estimates using the ages of the oldest stars, both as measured by applying the theory of stellar evolution to globular clusters and through radiometric dating of individual Population II stars.

The prediction that the CMB temperature was higher in the past has been experimentally supported by observations of very low temperature absorption lines in gas clouds at high redshift.

Observations have found this to be roughly true, but this effect depends on cluster properties that do change with cosmic time, making precise measurements difficult.

Future gravitational-wave observatories might be able to detect primordial gravitational waves , relics of the early universe, up to less than a second after the Big Bang.

As with any theory, a number of mysteries and problems have arisen as a result of the development of the Big Bang theory. Some of these mysteries and problems have been resolved while others are still outstanding.

Proposed solutions to some of the problems in the Big Bang model have revealed new mysteries of their own. For example, the horizon problem , the magnetic monopole problem , and the flatness problem are most commonly resolved with inflationary theory, but the details of the inflationary universe are still left unresolved and many, including some founders of the theory, say it has been disproven.

It is not yet understood why the universe has more matter than antimatter. However, observations suggest that the universe, including its most distant parts, is made almost entirely of matter.

A process called baryogenesis was hypothesized to account for the asymmetry. For baryogenesis to occur, the Sakharov conditions must be satisfied.

These require that baryon number is not conserved, that C-symmetry and CP-symmetry are violated and that the universe depart from thermodynamic equilibrium.

Measurements of the redshift— magnitude relation for type Ia supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe has been accelerating since the universe was about half its present age.

To explain this acceleration, general relativity requires that much of the energy in the universe consists of a component with large negative pressure, dubbed "dark energy".

Dark energy, though speculative, solves numerous problems. Dark energy also helps to explain two geometrical measures of the overall curvature of the universe, one using the frequency of gravitational lenses , and the other using the characteristic pattern of the large-scale structure as a cosmic ruler.

Negative pressure is believed to be a property of vacuum energy , but the exact nature and existence of dark energy remains one of the great mysteries of the Big Bang.

Therefore, matter made up a larger fraction of the total energy of the universe in the past than it does today, but its fractional contribution will fall in the far future as dark energy becomes even more dominant.

The dark energy component of the universe has been explained by theorists using a variety of competing theories including Einstein's cosmological constant but also extending to more exotic forms of quintessence or other modified gravity schemes.

During the s and the s, various observations showed that there is not sufficient visible matter in the universe to account for the apparent strength of gravitational forces within and between galaxies.

In addition, the assumption that the universe is mostly normal matter led to predictions that were strongly inconsistent with observations. In particular, the universe today is far more lumpy and contains far less deuterium than can be accounted for without dark matter.

While dark matter has always been controversial, it is inferred by various observations: the anisotropies in the CMB, galaxy cluster velocity dispersions, large-scale structure distributions, gravitational lensing studies, and X-ray measurements of galaxy clusters.

Indirect evidence for dark matter comes from its gravitational influence on other matter, as no dark matter particles have been observed in laboratories.

Many particle physics candidates for dark matter have been proposed, and several projects to detect them directly are underway.

Additionally, there are outstanding problems associated with the currently favored cold dark matter model which include the dwarf galaxy problem [78] and the cuspy halo problem.

The horizon problem results from the premise that information cannot travel faster than light. In a universe of finite age this sets a limit—the particle horizon—on the separation of any two regions of space that are in causal contact.

There would then be no mechanism to cause wider regions to have the same temperature. A resolution to this apparent inconsistency is offered by inflationary theory in which a homogeneous and isotropic scalar energy field dominates the universe at some very early period before baryogenesis.

During inflation, the universe undergoes exponential expansion, and the particle horizon expands much more rapidly than previously assumed, so that regions presently on opposite sides of the observable universe are well inside each other's particle horizon.

The observed isotropy of the CMB then follows from the fact that this larger region was in causal contact before the beginning of inflation.

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle predicts that during the inflationary phase there would be quantum thermal fluctuations , which would be magnified to a cosmic scale.

These fluctuations served as the seeds for all the current structures in the universe. If inflation occurred, exponential expansion would push large regions of space well beyond our observable horizon.

A related issue to the classic horizon problem arises because in most standard cosmological inflation models, inflation ceases well before electroweak symmetry breaking occurs, so inflation should not be able to prevent large-scale discontinuities in the electroweak vacuum since distant parts of the observable universe were causally separate when the electroweak epoch ended.

The magnetic monopole objection was raised in the late s. Grand Unified theories GUTs predicted topological defects in space that would manifest as magnetic monopoles.

These objects would be produced efficiently in the hot early universe, resulting in a density much higher than is consistent with observations, given that no monopoles have been found.

This problem is resolved by cosmic inflation, which removes all point defects from the observable universe, in the same way that it drives the geometry to flatness.

The flatness problem also known as the oldness problem is an observational problem associated with a FLRW. Curvature is negative if its density is less than the critical density; positive if greater; and zero at the critical density, in which case space is said to be flat.

Observations indicate the universe is consistent with being flat. The problem is that any small departure from the critical density grows with time, and yet the universe today remains very close to flat.

For instance, even at the relatively late age of a few minutes the time of nucleosynthesis , the density of the universe must have been within one part in 10 14 of its critical value, or it would not exist as it does today.

Before observations of dark energy, cosmologists considered two scenarios for the future of the universe. If the mass density of the universe were greater than the critical density, then the universe would reach a maximum size and then begin to collapse.

It would become denser and hotter again, ending with a state similar to that in which it started—a Big Crunch. Alternatively, if the density in the universe were equal to or below the critical density, the expansion would slow down but never stop.

Star formation would cease with the consumption of interstellar gas in each galaxy; stars would burn out, leaving white dwarfs , neutron stars , and black holes.

Collisions between these would result in mass accumulating into larger and larger black holes. The average temperature of the universe would very gradually asymptotically approach absolute zero —a Big Freeze.

Eventually, black holes would evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation. The entropy of the universe would increase to the point where no organized form of energy could be extracted from it, a scenario known as heat death.

Modern observations of accelerating expansion imply that more and more of the currently visible universe will pass beyond our event horizon and out of contact with us.

The eventual result is not known. Plus tard, ils ont refait un flashmob en sur la chanson Uptown Funk de Mark Ronson et de Bruno Mars.

Who doesn't? Qui n'en a pas? Elle est la petite amie d'Howard. Bien que Bernadette rejette son offre, ils restent en couple pendant un certain temps.

Cela le rend jaloux. Amy est neurobiologiste. In the sixth-season episode, "The 43 Peculiarity", Penny finally tells Leonard that she loves him. Although they both feel jealousy when the other receives significant attention from the opposite sex, Penny is secure enough in their relationship to send him off on an exciting four-month expedition without worrying in "The Bon Voyage Reaction".

After Leonard returns, their relationship blossoms over the seventh season. In the penultimate episode "The Gorilla Dissolution", Penny admits that they should marry and when Leonard realizes that she is serious, he proposes with a ring that he had been saving for years.

Leonard and Penny decide to elope to Las Vegas in the season 8 finale, but beforehand, wanting no secrets, Leonard admits to kissing another woman, Mandy Chow Melissa Tang while on an expedition on the North Sea.

Despite this, Leonard and Penny finally elope in the season 9 premiere and remain happily married. By the Season 9 finale, Penny and Leonard decide to have a second small, unofficial wedding ceremony for their family and friends to make up for eloping.

In season 10, Sheldon moves into Penny's old apartment with Amy, allowing Penny and Leonard to finally live on their own as husband and wife.

In season 12, Penny announces that she does not want to have any children and Leonard reluctantly supports her decision.

Later, her old boyfriend Zack and his new wife want Leonard to be a surrogate father to their kid since Zack is infertile.

Penny reluctantly agrees to let Leonard donate his sperm. However, when she tries to seduce Leonard despite knowing he has to be abstinent for a few days, her visiting father, Wyatt, points out to Penny that her own actions suggest she is more conflicted over having kids than she lets on, to which she admits she feels bad about letting him and Leonard down if she goes through with never having children.

He says that despite her flaws, parenthood is the best thing that ever happened to him and he does not want her to miss out, but he says he will support her no matter what she decides.

Leonard eventually changes his mind about donating his sperm, not wanting a child in the world that he cannot raise.

In the series finale, Penny reveals to her friends that she is pregnant with Leonard's baby, and she changes her mind about not wanting children.

In the third-season finale, Raj and Howard sign Sheldon up for online dating to find a woman compatible with Sheldon, and they discover neurobiologist Amy Farrah Fowler.

Like Sheldon, she has a history of social ineptitude and participates in online dating only to fulfill an agreement with her mother. This spawns a storyline in which Sheldon and Amy communicate daily while insisting to Leonard and Penny that they are not romantically involved.

In "The Agreement Dissection", Sheldon and Amy talk in her apartment after a night of dancing and she kisses him on the lips.

Instead of getting annoyed, Sheldon says "fascinating" and later asks Amy to be his girlfriend in "The Flaming Spittoon Acquisition". The same night he draws up "The Relationship Agreement" to verify the ground rules of him as her boyfriend and vice versa similar to his "Roommate Agreement" with Leonard.

Amy agrees but later regrets not having had a lawyer read through it. In "The Launch Acceleration", Amy tries to use her "neurobiology bag of tricks" to increase the attraction between herself and Sheldon.

Her efforts appear to be working as Sheldon is not happy, but he makes no attempt to stop her. In the final fifth-season episode "The Countdown Reflection", Sheldon takes Amy's hand as Howard is launched into space.

In the sixth season first episode "The Date Night Variable", after a dinner in which Sheldon fails to live up to this expectation, Amy gives Sheldon an ultimatum that their relationship is over unless he tells her something from his heart.

Amy accepts Sheldon's romantic speech even after learning that it is a line from the first Spider-Man movie. Amy is revealed to have similar feelings in "The Love Spell Potential".

Sheldon explains that he never thought about intimacy with anyone before Amy. Although initially done in a fit of sarcasm, he discovers that he enjoys the feeling.

Consequently, Sheldon slowly starts to open up over the rest of the season, and he starts a more intimate relationship with Amy.

However, in the season finale, Sheldon leaves town temporarily to cope with several changes and Amy becomes distraught. However, 45 days into the trip, Sheldon gets mugged and calls for Leonard to drive him home, only to be confronted by Amy, who is upset over not being contacted by him in weeks.

When Sheldon admits he did not call her because he was too embarrassed to admit that he could not make it on his own, Amy accepts that he is not perfect.

In "The Prom Equivalency", Sheldon hides in his room to avoid going to a mock prom reenactment with her. In the resulting stand-off, Amy is about to confess that she loves Sheldon, but he surprises her by saying that he loves her too.

This prompts Amy to have a panic attack. In the season eight finale, Sheldon and Amy get into a fight about commitment on their fifth anniversary.

Amy tells Sheldon that she needs to think about the future of their relationship, unaware that Sheldon was about to propose to her.

Season nine sees Sheldon harassing Amy about making up her mind until she breaks up with him. Both struggle with singlehood and trying to be friends for the next few weeks until they reunite in episode ten and have sex for the first time on Amy's birthday.

In season ten, Amy's apartment is flooded, and she and Sheldon decide to move in together into Penny's apartment as part of a five-week experiment to determine compatibility with each other's living habits.

It goes well and they decide to make the arrangement permanent. In the season eleven premiere, Sheldon proposes to Amy and she accepts.

The two get married in the eleventh-season finale. In the show, the song "Soft Kitty" was described by Sheldon as a song sung by his mother when he was ill.

Its repeated use in the series popularized the song. It shows Sheldon's mother Mary singing the song to her son, who is suffering with the flu.

In scenes set at Howard's home, he interacts with his rarely-seen mother voiced by Carol Ann Susi until her death by shouting from room to room in the house.

She similarly interacts with other characters in this manner. She is dependent on Howard, as she requires him to help her with her wig and makeup in the morning.

Howard, in turn, is attached to his mother to the point where she still cuts his meat for him, takes him to the dentist, does his laundry and "grounds" him when he returns home after briefly moving out.

In the apartment building where Sheldon, Leonard and Penny and later Amy live, the elevator has been out of order throughout most of the series, forcing characters to have to use the stairs.

Stairway conversations between characters occur in almost every episode, often serving as a transition between longer scenes.

The Season 3 episode, "The Staircase Implementation" reveals that the elevator was broken when Leonard was experimenting with rocket fuel.

Like most shows created by Chuck Lorre, The Big Bang Theory ends by showing for one second a vanity card written by Lorre after the credits, followed by the Warner Bros.

Television closing logo. These cards are archived on Lorre's website. Although the initial reception was mixed, [94] the show has since then received generally positive reviews.

The Big Bang Theory started off slowly in the ratings, failing to make the top 50 in its first season ranking 68th , and ranking 40th in its second season.

When the third season premiered on September 21, , however, The Big Bang Theory ranked as CBS's highest-rated show of that evening in the adults 18—49 demographic 4.

However, in the age 18—49 demographic the show's target age range , it was the second highest rated comedy, behind ABC 's Modern Family.

The fifth season opened with viewing figures of over 14 million. The sixth season boasts some of the highest-rated episodes for the show so far, with a then-new series high set with " The Bakersfield Expedition ", with 20 million viewers, [] a first for the series, which along with NCIS , made CBS the first network to have two scripted series reach that large an audience in the same week since In the sixth season, the show became the highest rated and viewed scripted show in the 18—49 demographic, trailing only the live regular NBC Sunday Night Football coverage, [] [] and was third in total viewers, trailing NCIS and Sunday Night Football.

Showrunner Steve Molaro, who took over from Bill Prady with the sixth season, credits some of the show's success to the sitcom's exposure in off-network syndication , particularly on TBS , while Michael Schneider of TV Guide attributes it to the timeslot move two seasons earlier.

Chuck Lorre and CBS Entertainment president Nina Tassler also credit the success to the influence of Molaro, in particular the deepening exploration of the firmly established regular characters and their interpersonal relationships, such as the on-again, off-again relationship between Leonard and Penny.

By the end of the —13 television season, The Big Bang Theory had dethroned Judge Judy as the ratings leader in all of syndicated programming with 7.

The show made its United Kingdom debut on Channel 4 on February 14, The show was also shown as a 'first-look' on Channel 4's digital offshoot E4 prior to the main channel's airing.

While the show's ratings were not deemed strong enough for the main channel, they were considered the opposite for E4. For each following season, all episodes were shown first-run on E4, with episodes only aired on the main channel in a repeat capacity, usually on a weekend morning.

From the third season, the show aired in two parts, being split so that it could air new episodes for longer throughout the year.

This was due to rising ratings. This gave the show an overall total of 1. The increased ratings continued over subsequent weeks. The fourth season's second half began on June 30, Episode 19, the highest-viewed episode of the season, attracted 1.

The sixth season returned in mid to finish airing the remaining episodes. The second half of season seven aired in mid Following the airing of the first eight episodes of that show's fourth season, The Big Bang Theory returned to finish airing its eighth season on March 19, The Big Bang Theory started off quietly in Canada, but managed to garner major success in later seasons.

The Big Bang Theory is telecast throughout Canada via the CTV Television Network in simultaneous substitution with cross-border CBS affiliates.

Now immensely popular in Canada, The Big Bang Theory is also rerun daily on the Canadian cable channel The Comedy Network. The season 4 premiere garnered an estimated 3.

This is the largest audience for a sitcom since the series finale of Friends. The Big Bang Theory has pulled ahead and has now become the most-watched entertainment television show in Canada.

The Big Bang Theory premiered in the United States on September 24, on CBS. The series debuted in Canada on CTV in September In May , it was reported that the show had been picked up for syndication , mainly among Fox 's owned and operated stations and other local stations, with Warner Bros.

Television's sister cable network TBS holding the show's cable syndication rights. Broadcast of old shows began airing in September TBS now airs the series in primetime on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, with evening broadcasts on Saturdays TBS's former local sister station in Atlanta also holds local weeknight rights to the series.

Warner Bros. Television controls the online rights for the show. In , the show became available in the United States on HBO Max.

The first and second seasons were only available on DVD at their time of release in [] and In , Warner Bros. In August , the sitcom won the best comedy series TCA award and Jim Parsons Sheldon won the award for individual achievement in comedy.

On September 18, , Parsons was again awarded an Emmy for Best Actor in a Comedy Series. On January 9, , the show won People's Choice Award for Favorite Comedy for the second time.

August 25, , Jim Parsons was awarded an Emmy for Best Actor in a Comedy Series. On March 16, , a Lego Ideas project [] portraying the living room scene in Lego style with the main cast as mini-figures reached 10, supporters on the platform, which qualified it to be considered as an official set by the Lego Ideas review board.

On November 7, , Lego Ideas approved the design and began refining it. The set was released in August , with an exclusive pre-sale taking place at the San Diego Comic-Con International.

Through the use of his vanity cards at the end of episodes, Lorre alleged that the program had been plagiarized by a show produced and aired in Belarus.

The television production company and station's close relationship with the Belarus government was cited as the reason that any attempt to claim copyright infringement would be in vain because the company copying the episodes is operated by the government.

However, no legal action was required to end production of the other show: as soon as it became known that the show was unlicensed, the actors quit and the producers canceled it.

At first, the actors were told all legal issues were resolved. We didn't know it wasn't the case, so when the creators of The Big Bang Theory started talking about the show, I was embarrassed.

I can't understand why our people first do, and then think. I consider this to be the rock bottom of my career. And I don't want to take part in a stolen show".

In November , it was reported that CBS was in negotiations to create a spin-off of The Big Bang Theory centered on Sheldon as a young boy.

The prequel series, described as "a Malcolm in the Middle -esque single-camera family comedy" would be executive-produced by Lorre and Molaro, with Prady expected to be involved in some capacity, and intended to air in the —18 season alongside The Big Bang Theory.

Perry is the real-life daughter of Laurie Metcalf , who portrays Mary Cooper on The Big Bang Theory. On March 13, , CBS ordered the spin-off Young Sheldon series.

Jon Favreau directed and executive produced the pilot. Created by Lorre and Molaro, the series follows 9-year-old Sheldon Cooper as he attends high school in East Texas.

Alongside Armitage as 9-year-old Sheldon Cooper and Perry as Mary Cooper, Lance Barber stars as George Cooper, Sheldon's father; Raegan Revord stars as Missy Cooper, Sheldon's twin sister; and Montana Jordan as George Cooper Jr.

Jim Parsons reprises his role as adult Sheldon Cooper, as narrator for the series. Parsons, Lorre, Molaro and Todd Spiewak will also serve as executive producers on the series, for Chuck Lorre Productions, Inc.

Subsequent weekly episodes began airing on November 2, following the broadcast of the th episode of The Big Bang Theory.

Armitage appeared on the series' th episode, "The VCR Illumination", by way of a videotape recorded by the younger Sheldon and viewed by the current-day Sheldon.

On January 6, , the show was renewed for a second season. On May 16, , a television special titled Unraveling the Mystery: A Big Bang Farewell aired following the series finale of The Big Bang Theory.

It's a backstage retrospective featuring Johnny Galecki and Kaley Cuoco. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

American television sitcom. This article is about the television series. For the scientific theory for which the series is named, see Big Bang.

For other uses, see Big Bang Theory disambiguation. For the Discovery Channel series, see The Big Brain Theory. Chuck Lorre Bill Prady.

Johnny Galecki Jim Parsons Kaley Cuoco Simon Helberg Kunal Nayyar Sara Gilbert Mayim Bialik Melissa Rauch Kevin Sussman Laura Spencer.

Chuck Lorre Bill Prady both; entire run Lee Aronsohn —11 Steven Molaro —19 Eric Kaplan Maria Ferrari Dave Goetsch all; — Chuck Lorre Productions Warner Bros.

Main article: List of The Big Bang Theory and Young Sheldon characters. This section describes a work or element of fiction in a primarily in-universe style.

Please help rewrite it to explain the fiction more clearly and provide non-fictional perspective. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: List of The Big Bang Theory episodes. Main article: Soft Kitty. The eighth and ninth seasons returned on the seventh episode, [] [] the tenth and eleventh seasons on the sixth episode, [] [] and the twelfth season on the second episode.

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by The Big Bang Theory. Main article: Young Sheldon. Retrieved May 9, Retrieved September 2, TV Guide.

Retrieved January 28, USA Today. Big Bang Theory - The Only Plausible Theory? Is the standard Big Bang theory the only model consistent with these evidences?

No, it's just the most popular one. Internationally renown Astrophysicist George F. Ellis explains: "People need to be aware that there is a range of models that could explain the observations….

For instance, I can construct you a spherically symmetrical universe with Earth at its center, and you cannot disprove it based on observations….

You can only exclude it on philosophical grounds. In my view there is absolutely nothing wrong in that. What I want to bring into the open is the fact that we are using philosophical criteria in choosing our models.

A lot of cosmology tries to hide that. Gentry claims that the standard Big Bang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm the Friedmann-lemaitre expanding-spacetime paradigm which he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data.

He chooses instead to base his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm which he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta. Halton Arp, and the renowned British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle, who is accredited with first coining the term "the Big Bang" during a BBC radio broadcast in Big Bang Theory - What About God?

Any discussion of the Big Bang theory would be incomplete without asking the question, what about God? This is because cosmogony the study of the origin of the universe is an area where science and theology meet.

Creation was a supernatural event. That is, it took place outside of the natural realm. This fact begs the question: is there anything else which exists outside of the natural realm?

The Big Bang Theory (TV Series –) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. A selection of the best moments from the all seasons of the series "The Big Bang Theory".Video with subtitles 6/23/ · The Big Bang Theory Theme Song Full by Barenaked LadiesAuthor: Madafackers:).

Big Bang Teory
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